The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[lower-alpha 1] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area[lower-alpha 2] and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles (10.1 million km2). With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776. The war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848.
During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery. By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U.S. Moon landing. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.
The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy. The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations. The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP. The U.S. economy is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U.S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.
Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity. The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.
- ↑ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
- ↑ „China”. http://www.britannica.com/topic/111803/China-quick-facts. Accesat la January 31, 2010.
- ↑ „United States”. http://www.britannica.com/topic/616563/United-States-quick-facts. Accesat la January 31, 2010.
- ↑ „United States”. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html. Accesat la June 10, 2016.
- ↑ „China”. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html. Accesat la June 10, 2016.
- ↑ UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre. „Megadiverse Countries definition”. UN WCMC. http://www.biodiversitya-z.org/content/megadiverse-countries. Accesat la September 11, 2017. „17 countries which have been identified as the most biodiversity-rich countries of the world, with a particular focus on endemic biodiversity.”
- ↑ Greene, Jack P., Pole, J.R., eds. (2008). A Companion to the American Revolution. pp. 352–361.
Bender, Thomas (2006). A Nation Among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8090-7235-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=wQHlrIz4gpYC&pg=PA61.
„Overview of the Early National Period”. University of Houston. 2014. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/era.cfm?eraid=4&smtid=1.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0. https://books.google.com/?id=ka6LxulZaEwC&vq=annexation&dq=territorial+expansion+United+States+%22manifest+destiny%22.
- ↑ „The Civil War and emancipation 1861–1865”. Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation. 1999. Archived from the original on October 12, 1999. https://web.archive.org/web/19991012054217/http://pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2967.html.
- ↑ Britannica Educational Publishing (2009). Wallenfeldt, Jeffrey H.. ed. The American Civil War and Reconstruction: People, Politics, and Power. America at War. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-61530-045-7. https://books.google.com/?id=T_0TrXXiDbUC&dq=slavery+%22American+Civil+War%22.
- ↑ White, Donald W. (1996). „1: The Frontiers”. The American Century. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05721-8. https://www.nytimes.com/books/first/w/white-century.html. Accesat la March 26, 2013.
- ↑ „Work in the Late 19th Century”. https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/work/. Accesat la January 16, 2015.
- ↑ Tony Judt; Denis Lacorne (2005). With Us Or Against Us: Studies in Global Anti-Americanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4039-8085-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=nVDHAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA61.
Richard J. Samuels (2005). Encyclopedia of United States National Security. Sage Publications. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=K751AwAAQBAJ&pg=PT666.
Paul R. Pillar (2001). Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8157-0004-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=_GYklwy6booC&pg=PA57.
Gabe T. Wang (2006). China and the Taiwan Issue: Impending War at Taiwan Strait. University Press of America. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7618-3434-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=CbPJ7KZ9FvIC&pg=PA179.
Understanding the "Victory Disease," From the Little Bighorn to Mogadishu and Beyond. Diane Publishing. 2004. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-1052-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=qgdmiw4VUHsC&pg=PA1.
Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-313-38375-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=tzwYzL9KcwEC&pg=PA313.
- ↑ „Manufacturing, value added (current US$)”. World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.MANF.CD. Accesat la February 11, 2017.
- ↑ „The World Factbook”. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/Publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2087rank.html.
- ↑ „The World Factbook”. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/Publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html.
- ↑ „Population Clock”. U.S. Department of Commerce. July 4, 2017. https://www.census.gov/popclock/. Accesat la September 11, 2017. „The United States population on July 4, 2017 was: 325,365,189”
- ↑ „Global Wealth Report”. October 2018. https://www.credit-suisse.com/corporate/en/research/research-institute/global-wealth-report.html. Accesat la February 11, 2019.
- ↑ "U.S. Workers World's Most Productive". CBS News. February 11, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2013. Check date values in:
- ↑ „Average annual wages”. https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=AV_AN_WAGE.
- ↑ „Trends in world military expenditure, 2013”. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. April 2014. Archived from the original on January 4, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150104033821/http://books.sipri.org/product_info?c_product_id=476. Accesat la April 14, 2014.
- ↑ Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
„Geographical trends of research output”. Research Trends. http://www.researchtrends.com/issue8-november-2008/geographical-trends-of-research-output/. Accesat la March 16, 2014.
„The top 20 countries for scientific output”. Open Access Week. http://www.openaccessweek.org/profiles/blogs/the-top-20-countries-for-scientific-output. Accesat la March 16, 2014.
„Granted patents”. European Patent Office. http://www.epo.org/about-us/annual-reports-statistics/annual-report/2012/statistics-trends/granted-patents.html. Accesat la March 16, 2014.
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